Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic
South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern
Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is
surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.0 million km2 (5.4 million sq mi),
it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America,
and South America. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of
Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9
kilometres (1.2 mi) in thickness, which extends to all but the
northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Over 70% of the Earth's fresh water
is held in the 2km thick icesheet covering the continent.
Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent,
and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica
is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches)
along the coast and far less inland. The temperature in Antarctica has
reached −89 °C (−129 °F). There are no permanent human residents, but
anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the
research stations scattered across the continent. Only cold-adapted
organisms survive, including many types of algae, bacteria, fungi,
plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins,
seals and tardigrades. Vegetation where it occurs is tundra.
Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land")
date back to antiquity, the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von
Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny first sighted a
continental ice shelf in 1820. The continent, however, remained largely
neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile
environment, lack of resources, and isolation.
Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic
Treaty System that have consulting status. The Antarctic Treaty was signed
in 1959 by 12 countries; to date, 50 countries have signed the treaty.
The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits
nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific
research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments
are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.
Latest Weather Report from the South Pole
The temperature is -56°C and the
the wind speed is 12mph.
Visibility is limited to 1.6km.
Current weather: clear.
Last Updated on March 24, 12:50 AM NZDT